Pearce, Markandya and Barbier define sustainability as “a nondeclining utility function or nondeclining capital; nondeclining human welfare over time” (Hempel 2001, 47).
Another definition is “resilience- ability to maintain structural integrity, form, and patterns of behavior in the midst of disturbance” (Common 1995).
Goals of Sustainability
“the system does not cause harm to other systems, both in space and time; the system maintains living standards at a level that does not cause physical discomfort or social discontent to the human component; within the system life-support ecological components are maintained at levels of current conditions or better” (Voinov and Smith 1998)
“development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Commission 1987)
BROAD-BASED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Broad-based sustainable development requires a healthy, growing economy undergoing structural transformation and leading to a higher standard of living, an economy in which the benefits are equitably shared and distributed, a protection of human rights, civil society, and democratic participation, and that of sustainability, wherein the environment is not destroyed and descendants of current peoples enjoy the same or a higher standard of living (Weaver, Rock, Kusterer 1997, 2, 3, 13-36).
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